Euro Definition, History, Symbol, & Facts

For local phonetics, cent, use of plural and amount formatting (€6,00 or 6.00 €), see Language and the euro. In general, those in Europe who own large amounts of euro are served by high stability and low inflation. Outside the eurozone, two EU member states have currencies that are pegged to the euro, which is https://www.topforexnews.org/news/unemployment-drugs-and-attitudes-among-european/ a precondition to joining the eurozone. The Danish krone and Bulgarian lev are pegged due to their participation in the ERM II. Take our quiz and test your knowledge of the euro (and the European Central Bank). The United Kingdom, which was a member of the European Union from 1973 to 2020, did not use the euro.

  1. However, currencies which are not official within the euro area, are not governed by monetary law.
  2. The seven colourful bills, designed by the Austrian artist Robert Kalina and ranging in denomination from €5 to €500, symbolize the unity of Europe and feature a map of Europe, the EU’s flag, and arches, bridges, gateways, and windows.
  3. Voters in Denmark narrowly rejected the euro in a September 2000 referendum.
  4. The Maastricht Treaty was amended by the 2001 Treaty of Nice,[19] which closed the gaps and loopholes in the Maastricht and Rome Treaties.
  5. Having demonstrated fiscal stability since joining the EU in 2004, both Malta and the Greek Cypriot sector of Cyprus adopted the euro in 2008.

(The euro is also the official currency in several areas outside the EU, including Andorra, Montenegro, Kosovo, and San Marino.) The 20 participating EU countries are known as the euro area, euroland, or the euro zone. The most obvious benefit of adopting a single currency is to remove the cost of exchanging currency, theoretically allowing businesses and individuals to consummate previously unprofitable trades. For consumers, banks in the eurozone must charge the same for intra-member cross-border transactions as purely domestic transactions for electronic payments (e.g., credit cards, debit cards and cash machine withdrawals).

USD - US Dollar

The earliest date was in Germany, where the mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December 2001, though the exchange period lasted for two months more. The earliest coins to become non-convertible were the Portuguese escudos, which ceased to have monetary value after 31 December 2002, tradeview forex review 2021 user rating although banknotes remained exchangeable until 2022. The currency was introduced in non-physical form (traveller's cheques, electronic transfers, banking, etc.) at midnight on 1 January 1999, when the national currencies of participating countries (the eurozone) ceased to exist independently.

Greece initially failed to meet the economic requirements but was admitted in January 2001 after overhauling its economy. While increased liquidity may lower the nominal interest rate on the bond, denominating the bond in a currency with low levels of inflation arguably plays a much larger role. A credible commitment to low levels of inflation and a stable debt reduces the risk that the value of the debt will be eroded by higher levels of inflation or default in the future, allowing debt to be issued at a lower nominal interest rate.

Due to the linguistic plurality in the European Union, the Latin alphabet version of euro is used (as opposed to the less common Greek or Cyrillic) and Arabic numerals (other text is used on national sides in national languages, but other text on the common side is avoided). For the denominations except the 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, the map only showed the 15 member states of the union as of 2002. Beginning in 2007 or 2008 (depending on the country), the old map was replaced by a map of Europe also showing countries outside the EU.[35] The 1-, 2- and 5-cent coins, however, keep their old design, showing a geographical map of Europe with the EU member states as of 2002, raised somewhat above the rest of the map. The coins also have a national side showing an image specifically chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any member state may be freely used in any nation that has adopted the euro. It is the second-most traded currency on the forex market, after the US Dollar, and also a major global reserve currency.

Supporters of the euro argued that a single European currency would boost trade by eliminating foreign exchange fluctuations and reducing prices. Although there were concerns regarding a single currency, including worries about counterfeiting and loss of national sovereignty and national identity, 11 countries (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain) formally joined the EMU in 1998. Britain and Sweden delayed joining, though some businesses in Britain decided to accept payment in euros. Voters in Denmark narrowly rejected the euro in a September 2000 referendum.

Which bank manages the euro?

However, currencies which are not official within the euro area, are not governed by monetary law. Parties may also agree to transactions using other official foreign currencies (e.g. the US dollar). They may also agree to use privately issued ‘money’ like local exchange trading systems (e.g. voucher-based payment systems) or virtual currencies (e.g. Bitcoin). Bulgaria has negotiated an exception; euro in the Bulgarian Cyrillic alphabet is spelled eвро (evro) and not eуро (euro) in all official documents.[125] In the Greek script the term ευρώ (evró) is used; the Greek "cent" coins are denominated in λεπτό/ά (leptó/á). The euro is divided into 100 cents (also referred to as euro cents, especially when distinguishing them from other currencies, and referred to as such on the common side of all cent coins).

Unlike most of the national currencies that they replaced, euro banknotes do not display famous national figures. The seven colourful bills, designed by the Austrian artist Robert Kalina and ranging in denomination from €5 to €500, symbolize the unity of Europe and feature a map of Europe, the EU’s flag, and arches, bridges, gateways, and windows. The coins feature one side with https://www.day-trading.info/how-to-trade-government-bonds/ a common design; the reverse sides’ designs differ in each of the individual participating countries. It was introduced as a noncash monetary unit in 1999, and currency notes and coins appeared in participating countries on January 1, 2002. After February 28, 2002, the euro became the sole currency of 12 EU member states, and their national currencies ceased to be legal tender.

Currency sign

To participate in the currency, member states are meant to meet strict criteria, such as a budget deficit of less than 3% of their GDP, a debt ratio of less than 60% of GDP (both of which were ultimately widely flouted after introduction), low inflation, and interest rates close to the EU average. In the Maastricht Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions per their request from moving to the stage of monetary union which resulted in the introduction of the euro. All circulating coins have a common side showing the denomination or value, and a map in the background.

The Maastricht Treaty was amended by the 2001 Treaty of Nice,[19] which closed the gaps and loopholes in the Maastricht and Rome Treaties. Spelling and CapitalizationThe official spelling of the EUR currency unit is "euro", with a lower case "e"; however, the common industry practice is to spell it "Euro", with a capital "E". Many languages have different official spellings for the Euro, which also may or may not coincide with general use. Additionally, there are various nicknames for the currency including, Ege (Finnish), Pavo (Spanish), and Euráče (Slovak). Our currency rankings show that the most popular Euro exchange rate is the EUR to USD rate.

The notes and coins for the old currencies, however, continued to be used as legal tender until new euro notes and coins were introduced on 1 January 2002. The euro is managed and administered by the European Central Bank (ECB, Frankfurt am Main) and the Eurosystem, composed of the central banks of the eurozone countries. As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, minting and distribution of euro banknotes and coins in all member states, and the operation of the eurozone payment systems.

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